Yellow crazy ant treatment options

open areas : forested / densely wooded areas : residential areas : agricultural / livestock areas : near open water / rivers /streamsconservation areas

Yellow crazy ant - open area

Treatment products

Granular bait

  • AntOff (fipronil 0.01 g/kg in a fish meal matrix)
  • Application rate 10 kg/ha

OR

  • Campaign (hydramethylnon 7.3 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Application rate 5 kg/ha

Either may be used alone or in combination with

  • Distance plus (pyriproxyfen 5 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Application rate 4 kg/ha

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Apply bait when ants are most actively foraging – typically during the cooler parts of the day, 6:00-10:00 am and 3:00- 6:00 pm
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective
  • Wait at least three months after previous treatment before treating again. This is to avoid bait shyness

Application method

Broadcast with manual spreaders or by helicopter over large areas

Environmental /social considerations

  • Toxic to marine/aquatic life – enforce 5 m no bait zone from high tide mark and any open water sources
  • Do not apply bait when rain is likely within the next 6 hours
  • May be eaten by domestic or stock animals – pen animals away from treatment area or refrain from broadcasting bait where stock /domestic animals roam (see agricultural / livestock areas for alternatives)
  • Ensure all stakeholders are aware baiting is taking place and that children are kept away from or know not to touch bait

Equipment required

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait which is sufficient to treat 0.1 ha
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Measuring jug or scoop – 1.5 L of bait equates to 1 kg
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying bait containers

and/or

  • Helicopter with hopper spreader

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling bait

Information Sources

Burne, Barbieri, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Atafu, Tokelau. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Burne, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Kiritimati, Kiribati. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Craddock. 2015. Yellow crazy ant treatment on Atafu Atoll, Tokelau. FBA consulting Client report for Pacific Biosecurity

Lach, Barker. 2013. Assessing the effectiveness of tramp ant projects to reduce impacts on biodiversity. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities

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Yellow crazy ant - forested / densely wooded area

Treatment products

Granular bait

  • AntOff (fipronil 0.01 g/kg in a fish meal matrix)
  • Application rate 10 kg/ha

OR

  • Campaign (hydramethylnon 7.3 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Application rate 5 kg/ha

Either may be used alone or in combination with

  • Distance plus (pyriproxyfen 5 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Application rate 4 kg/ha

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Apply bait when ants are most actively foraging – typically during the cooler parts of the day, 6:00-10:00 am and 3:00- 6:00 pm
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective
  • Wait at least three months after previous treatment before treating again. This is to avoid bait shyness

Application method

Environmental /social considerations

  • Toxic to marine/aquatic life – enforce 5 m no bait zone from high tide mark and any open water sources
  • Do not apply bait when rain is likely within the next 6 hours
  • May be eaten by domestic or stock animals – pen animals away from treatment area or refrain from broadcasting bait where stock /domestic animals roam (see agricultural / livestock areas)
  • Ensure all stakeholders are aware baiting is taking place and that children are kept away from or know not to touch bait
  • Note motorised blowers are hot and heavy to use. Ensure operators have sufficient water available to avoid dehydration

Equipment/materials required

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait which is sufficient to treat 0.1 ha
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Measuring jug or scoop – 1.5 L of bait equates to 1 kg
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying bait containers
  • Nitrile or thick garden gloves

and/or

  • Motorised blower
  • Petrol
  • 2 stroke oil spreader
  • Nitrile or thick gardening gloves

and/or (aerial application)

  • Helicopter with hopper spreader

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves
  • Ear protectors

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling bait

Information Sources

Boland, Smith, Maple, Tiernan, Barr, Reeves, Napier. 2011. Heli-baiting using low concentration fipronil to control invasive yellow crazy ant supercolonies on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. In: Island invasives: eradication and management (eds Veitch, Clout, Towns), pp 152-156. Gland, IUCN

Burne, Barbieri, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Atafu, Tokelau. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Burne, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Kiritimati, Kiribati. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Hoffmann. 2009. Dhimurru yellow crazy ant management plan. A report prepared for Dhimurru Aboriginal Corporation

Lach, Barker. 2013. Assessing the effectiveness of tramp ant projects to reduce impacts on biodiversity. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities

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Yellow crazy ant - residential area

Treatment products

Granular bait

  • AntOff (fipronil 0.01 g/kg in a fish meal matrix)
  • Application rate 10 kg/ha

May be used alone or in combination with

  • Campaign (hydramethylnon 7.3 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Application rate 5 kg/ha and/ or
  • Distance plus (pyriproxyfen 5 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Application rate 4 kg/ha

Paste bait

  • Vanquish Pro (Fipronil 0. 1 g/kg)
  • Application rate 3.25 kg/ha

Targeted Insecticide

  • ATTRATHOR (Fipronil 0.26 g/L (concentrate) diluted at a rate of 10 ml of concentrate to in 1 litre of water)

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Apply granular and paste bait when ants are most actively foraging – typically 6:00-10:00am and 3:00- 6:00pm
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective
  • Wait at least three months after previous treatment before treating again. This is to avoid bait shyness

Application method

Granular bait

  • Broadcast with manual spreaders up to 5 m away from houses (unless otherwise authorised by home owners) and no closer than 5 m to any open water or water source

Paste Bait

  • This bait is sold in either a 100 g syringe or in larger, 325 g cartridges, which require a caulking gun to apply them
  • The bait is applied in ~ 1cm3 “blobs” every 3 m at a height >1.5 m within 5 m of houses or where young children or domestic animals were likely to come into contact with granular baits

Targeted Insecticide

  • ATTRATHOR is sold as a concentrate, which is diluted at a rate of 10 ml concentrate in 1 L of water in a garden spray bottle
  • The solution is sprayed in an approximately 15 cm line at 3 m intervals on foraging trails
  • The product is used where young children or domestic animals are likely to come into contact with granular baits or where paste bait is likely to dry out, fall on the ground and become accessible to domestic animals (such as chickens)

Environmental /social considerations

  • Toxic to marine/aquatic life – enforce 5 m no bait zone from high tide mark and any open water sources
  • Do not apply granular bait when rain is likely within the next 6 hours
  • Do not apply paste bait in direct sun – it dries out and becomes unattractive to ants
  • Do not use targeted insecticide when there is sufficient wind to pose a risk that spray will be carried into the operator's face
  • To minimise the risk of spills in the treatment area, targeted insecticide should be stored and mixing should be done in a bunded area away from the treatment area and the diluted product carried into the field
  • Granular bait and dried out paste bait may be eaten by domestic or stock animals – pen animals away from treatment area or refrain from broadcasting bait where stock /domestic animals roam. ATTRATHOR is a better treatment option in these areas
  • Ensure all stakeholders are aware baiting is taking place and that children are kept away from or know not to touch bait

Equipment/materials required

Granular bait

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait which is sufficient to treat 0.1 ha
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Measuring jug or scoop – 1.5 L of bait equates to 1 kg
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying bait containers
  • Nitrile or thick garden gloves

Paste bait

  • Caulking gun
  • Knife
  • Nitrile or thick gardening gloves

Targeted Insecticide

  • Garden spray bottle
  • Water supply
  • Nitrile gloves
  • Paper mask

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves
  • Paper mask

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling bait
  • Wear a mask when spraying ATTRATHOR outdoors

Information Sources

Burne, Barbieri, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Atafu, Tokelau. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Burne, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Kiritimati, Kiribati. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Craddock. 2015. Yellow crazy ant treatment on Atafu Atoll, Tokelau. FBA consulting Client report for Pacific Biosecurity

Lach, Barker. 2013. Assessing the effectiveness of tramp ant projects to reduce impacts on biodiversity. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities

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Yellow crazy ant - agricultural / livestock area

Treatment products

Granular bait

  • Engage P (S-methoprene 5 g/kg) has been applied aerially to sugar cane fields in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area Queensland, Australia without imposing a withholding period for harvest
  • The 2004 Environmental Monitoring Branch of the US Department of Pesticide Regulations Document “Environmental Fate of methoprene”, indicates S-methoprene has very low toxicity to mammals. For example, the LD50 for dogs ranged from 5,000 to 10,000 mg/kg
  • It should be noted that, as S-methoprene is an insect growth regulator it does not kill adult ants, so several treatments may be required before a noticeable decline in numbers is observed

Paste bait

  • Vanquish Pro (Fipronil 0.1 g/kg) Application rate 3.25 kg/ha) applied in ~ 1 cm3 blobs every 3 m at a height >1.5 m where livestock were likely to come into contact with granular baits

Targeted Insecticide

  • ATTRATHOR (fipronil 0.26 g/L (concentrate) diluted at a rate of 10 ml of concentrate to in 1 L of water)

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Apply paste bait when ants are most actively foraging – typically 6:00-10:00am and 3:00- 6:00pm
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective
  • Wait at least three months after previous treatment before treating again. This is to avoid bait shyness

Application method

Granular bait

  • Broadcast with manual spreaders or by helicopter over large areas

Paste Bait

  • Vanquish Pro is sold in either a 100 g syringe or in larger, 325 g cartridges, which require a caulking gun to apply them
  • The bait is applied in ~ 1 cm3 “blobs” every 3 m at a height >1.5 m to the exterior of animal pens garden areas

Targeted Insecticide

  • ATTRATHOR is sold as a concentrate, which is diluted at a rate of 10 ml concentrate in 1 L of water in a garden spray bottle
  • The solution is sprayed in an approximately 15 cm line at 3 m intervals at heights greater than 1.5 m
  • The solution may be used inside animal pens, where paste bait is likely to dry out, fall on the ground and become accessible to stock animals
  • The solution is particularly effective when sprayed directly on to on foraging trails

Environmental /social considerations

  • Toxic to marine/aquatic life – enforce 5m no bait zone from high tide mark and any open water sources
  • Enforce a 42 day withholding period on harvesting vegetables or fruit grown in treatment areas treated with fipronil based products
  • Do not apply paste bait in direct sun – it dries out and becomes unattractive to ants
  • Do not use targeted insecticide when there is sufficient wind to pose a risk that spray will be carried into the operators face
  • To minimise the risk of spills in the treatment area, targeted insecticide should be stored and mixing should be done in a bunded area away from the treatment area and the diluted product carried into the field
  • Granular bait and dried out paste bait may be eaten by domestic or stock animals – pen animals away from treatment area or refrain from broadcasting bait where stock /domestic animals roam. ATTRATHOR is a better treatment option in these areas
  • Ensure all stakeholders are aware baiting is taking place and that children are kept away from or know not to touch bait

Equipment/materials required

Granular bait

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait which is sufficient to treat 0.1 ha
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Measuring jug or scoop – 1.5 L of bait equates to 1 kg
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying bait containers

and/or

  • Helicopter with hopper spreader

Paste bait

  • Caulking gun
  • Knife
  • Nitrile or thick gardening gloves

Targeted Insecticide

  • Garden spray bottle
  • Water supply
  • Nitrile gloves
  • Paper mask

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves
  • Paper mask

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling bait
  • Wear a mask when spraying ATTRATHOR outdoors

Information Sources

Burne, Barbieri, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Atafu, Tokelau. Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Craddock. 2015. Yellow crazy ant treatment on Atafu Atoll, Tokelau. FBA consulting Client report for Pacific Biosecurity

Hoffmann. 2009. Dhimurru yellow crazy ant management plan. A report prepared for Dhimurru Aboriginal Corporation

Lach, Hoskin. 2015. Too much to lose: yellow crazy ants in the Wet Tropics. Wildlife Australia Spring 2015: 37-41

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Yellow crazy ant – near open water

Treatment products

Granular bait

  • Engage P (S-methoprene 5 g/kg) has been applied using manual spreaders in riparian areas and within 5 m of waterways and drains in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area Queensland, Australia.

Note

  • Before deciding to use this bait, it should be noted that:
  • According to the 2004 Environmental Monitoring Branch of the US Department of Pesticide Regulations Document “Environmental Fate of methoprene”, S- methoprene binds with organic sediments in water and breaks down rapidly (80% reduction within 13 days) in the presence of sunlight, suggesting it’s availability to aquatic organisms is limited
  • However, it is described as moderately toxic to cold water and freshwater fish and practically non-toxic to warm water fish
  • Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates is highly variable ranging from low (Daphnia magna – LC50 900 µg/l) to high (Mysidopsis bahia - LOEC 2 µg/l). Bioaccumulation has been observed in the edible tissues of crayfish and bluegill sunfish

Other granular baits used to control yellow crazy ants such as

  • AntOff (fipronil 0.01 g/kg in a fish meal matrix)
  • Campaign (hydramethylnon 7.3 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)
  • Distance plus (pyriproxyfen 5 g/kg in a corn grit matrix)

SHOULD NOT be applied within 5 m of open water. As YCA forage between 35 and 100 m from their nest, this 5 m buffer should not adversely affect treatment of YCA nesting within 5 m of open water

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Apply bait when ants are most actively foraging – typically 6:00-10:00 am and 3:00- 6:00 pm
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective
  • Wait at least three months after previous treatment before treating again. This is to avoid bait shyness

Application method

Environmental /social considerations

  • Toxic to marine/aquatic life – enforce 5 m no bait zone from high tide mark and any open water sources
  • Do not apply bait when rain is likely within the next 6 hours
  • Ensure all stakeholders are aware baiting is taking place and that children are kept away from or know not to touch bait

Equipment required

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Measuring jug or scoop
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying bait containers

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling bait

Information Sources

Craddock. 2015. Yellow crazy ant treatment on Atafu Atoll, Tokelau. FBA consulting Client report for Pacific Biosecurity

Lach, Barker. 2013. Assessing the effectiveness of tramp ant projects to reduce impacts on biodiversity. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities

Lach, Hoskin. 2015. Too much to lose: yellow crazy ants in the Wet Tropics. Wildlife Australia Spring 2015: 37-41

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Yellow crazy ant – conservation area

Option A) control in and around seabird colonies on atoll islets

Treatment products

  • Safari 20SG Insecticide (dinotefuran, 200 g/kg)

either

  • Mixed at 0.05% by weight with cat food for protein (25%), dark karo (corn) syrup for carbohydrates (25%), water (~50%) and a small amount of xanthan gum, a thickening agent. This paste bait is then applied with squirt guns.
  • Application rate 24.1 kg/ha

or

  • dry Safari pellets are dissolved in water at a rate of 2.5 g/L (to make a 0.05% solution) then the solution is used to saturate dehydrated hydrogel beads
  • Application rate 96 L/ha

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Apply bait a few hours before sunset to avoid bait drying out in the sun
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective

Application method

Paste bait

  • Applied with high volume squirt guns (36” Stream Machine Water Soaker or equivalent)

Gel bait

  • Applied by hand using a plastic ladle to haphazardly scatter the bait

Equipment required

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Plastic container
  • Ladle/spoon
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying containers, water and bait
  • Nitrile Gloves

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling bait

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Option B) control for tropical forest with high endemism in Northern Queensland

Treatment products

  • Engage P (S-methoprene 5 g/kg)
  • Application rate 5 kg/ha

Timing

  • Do not apply bait during the wet season or during rainy weather
  • Do not apply bait if only pupae are present in nests
  • Nest should contain larvae and/or new queens for baiting to be effective

Application method

Granular bait

  • Broadcast by helicopter over forested areas
  • Manual spreaders in riparian areas and within 5 m of waterways
  • The bait is applied to infested areas three times a year, for three years

Environmental /social considerations

  • The 2004 Environmental Monitoring Branch of the US Department of Pesticide Regulations Document “Environmental Fate of methoprene”, indicates S- methoprene binds with organic sediments in water and breaks down rapidly (80% reduction within 13 days) in the presence of sunlight, suggesting it’s availability to aquatic organisms is limited
  • However, it is described as moderately toxic to cold water and freshwater fish and practically non-toxic to warm water fish
  • Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates is highly variable ranging from low (Daphnia magna – LC50 900 µg/L) to high (Mysidopsis bahia - LOEC 2 µg/L)
  • Bioaccumulation has been observed in the edible tissues of crayfish and bluegill sunfish
  • S-methoprene is an insect growth regulator it does not kill adult ants, so several treatments may be required before a noticeable decline in numbers is observed

Equipment required

  • Manual spreader(s) – each spreader holds approximately 1 kg of bait
  • Multiple spreaders may be employed to speed the application process
  • Measuring jug or scoop – 1.5 L of bait equates to 1 kg
  • Vehicle or wheelbarrow for carrying bait containers

and/or (aerial application)

  • Helicopter with hopper spreader

Personal Protective Equipment

  • Nitrile gloves or thick gardening gloves

Health and Safety

  • Always read the SDS for the bait
  • Always wear gloves when handling bait
  • Always wash hands with soap and water before eating, drinking or smoking after handling

Information Sources

Chalker-Scott. 2001. The Myth of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels. Extension publication Puyallup Research and Extension Center, Washington State University

Chalker-Scott. undated . The Myth of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels Revisited. Extension publication Puyallup Research and Extension Center, Washington State University

Chalker-Scott.2007. Miracle, myth or marketing super-absorbent water crystals. Master Gardener Article

Reference material used in the Chalker-Scott articles cited here: https://puyallup.wsu.edu/lcs/reference-polyacrylamide-gels/

Csondes. 2004. Environmental fate of methoprene. Report for Department of Pesticide Regulation California Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring Branch

Kropidlowski, Woodward, Plentovich. 2012. Successful control of yellow crazy ants at Johnston Atoll NWR. 20th Annual Hawai’i Conservation Conference (Talk) https://vimeo.com/56951285

Lach, Hoskin. 2015. Too much to lose: yellow crazy ants in the Wet Tropics. Wildlife Australia Spring 2015: 37-41

Peck, Banko, Donmoyer, Kropidlowski, Pollock. 2015. Efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants on Johnston Atoll: results from crazy ant strike team IX, December 2014-June 2015. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit HCSU-067. DOI: http://hdl.handle.net/10790/2586

Further information was provided by Lucy Karger, Yellow Crazy Ant Eradication Programme Coordinator, Wet Tropics Management Authority, lucy.karger@wtma.qld.gov.au

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content reviewed by Ben Hoffmann, CSIRO Australia, January 2017